What Causes Prostate Enlargement

Dangers of an Enlarged Prostate

Prostate enlargement, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is a common condition in aging men. BPH occurs when the prostate gland grows in size, typically due to changes in hormone levels as men age. While the exact cause of BPH is still not entirely understood, factors such as age, family history, and hormonal imbalances may contribute to the development of the condition.

Symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Men with BPH may experience a variety of symptoms, which can range from mild to severe. These symptoms include:

  • Frequent urination, especially at night
  • Difficulty starting urination
  • Weak or interrupted urine flow
  • Inability to completely empty the bladder
  • Urgency to urinate
  • Dribbling of urine after urination
  • Painful urination

These symptoms can be bothersome and may negatively impact a man’s quality of life. If you’re suffering from any of these symptoms, it’s essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

How is an Enlarged Prostate Diagnosed

Diagnosing an enlarged prostate involves a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional. This typically includes a physical examination, medical history, and various tests to determine the severity of the condition.

Diagnosis of BPH

To diagnose BPH, healthcare providers may use several tests, including:

  • Digital rectal examination (DRE): The doctor inserts a gloved finger into the rectum to feel the size and shape of the prostate.
  • Blood tests: These tests may include prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, which can help rule out prostate cancer.
  • Urine tests: Urinalysis can help identify infection or other abnormalities in the urinary tract.
  • Uroflowmetry: This test measures the flow rate and volume of urine during urination.
  • Imaging studies: Ultrasound or MRI can provide detailed images of the prostate and surrounding structures.

These tests help the healthcare provider determine the severity of BPH and rule out other potential causes of the symptoms.

In addition to the tests mentioned earlier, healthcare providers may employ further diagnostic tools to gain a better understanding of the patient’s condition and ensure a more accurate diagnosis. These additional tests can also help rule out other potential causes of urinary symptoms, such as prostate cancer or bladder disorders.

Urodynamic Testing

Urodynamic testing evaluates the function of the bladder and urethra during the storage and release of urine. These tests can help identify any abnormalities in bladder function or capacity and provide insight into the underlying cause of urinary symptoms. Some common urodynamic tests include:

  • Cystometry: This test measures the pressure inside the bladder as it fills with fluid, helping to determine bladder capacity and sensitivity.
  • Pressure-flow study: This test assesses the relationship between bladder pressure and urine flow during urination, helping to identify any blockages or obstructions in the urinary tract.
  • Electromyography: By measuring the electrical activity of the muscles and nerves controlling the bladder and urethra, this test can help identify any issues related to nerve or muscle function.

Postvoid Residual Volume Measurement

Postvoid residual (PVR) volume measurement assesses the amount of urine left in the bladder after urination. A high PVR can indicate difficulty emptying the bladder completely, a common symptom of BPH. PVR can be measured using ultrasound or by inserting a catheter into the bladder to drain and measure the remaining urine.


Cystoscopy is a procedure that allows healthcare providers to visually examine the urethra and bladder using a thin, flexible tube called a cystoscope. This procedure can help identify any structural abnormalities, such as strictures or bladder stones, that may be contributing to urinary symptoms. While cystoscopy is typically performed under local anesthesia, it may sometimes require sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the patient’s needs and the complexity of the procedure.


In some cases, healthcare providers may recommend a prostate biopsy to rule out prostate cancer, especially if the patient has elevated PSA levels or an abnormal DRE. During a biopsy, small samples of prostate tissue are collected using a needle and then examined under a microscope for signs of cancer cells.

Dangers of Untreated Prostate Enlargement

If left untreated, BPH can lead to several complications, ranging from mild to severe. These complications may include:

  • Urinary tract infections: Incomplete emptying of the bladder can lead to bacterial infections in the urinary tract.
  • Bladder stones: Retained urine in the bladder can cause the formation of bladder stones, which can be painful and may require surgical removal.
  • Acute urinary retention: Severe cases of BPH can lead to a complete inability to urinate, requiring emergency medical intervention.
  • Kidney damage: Chronic urinary retention and recurrent infections can cause damage to the kidneys over time.

Treatment for BPH in Houston, TX

There are several treatment options available for BPH, depending on the severity of the condition and the patient’s preferences. These options may include:

  • Watchful waiting: For men with mild symptoms, healthcare providers may recommend monitoring the condition without immediate treatment.
  • Medications: Various medications can help relieve symptoms, shrink the prostate, or relax the muscles around the prostate to improve urine flow.
  • Minimally invasive procedures: These treatments use heat, water vapor, or other methods to remove excess prostate tissue and improve urinary function.Newer procedures such as Prostate Artery Embolization uses advanced techniques.
  • Surgery: In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove excess prostate tissue and alleviate symptoms.

If you or a loved one is experiencing symptoms of an enlarged prostate, it’s crucial to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment. With the right approach, it’s possible to manage BPH effectively and maintain a high quality of life.

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